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Indonesia and USA ‘Most Entrepreneur-Friendly Nations’: Global Poll

25 May 2011 - Indonesia, the USA, Canada, India, and Australia are among the countries with the best cultures in the world for people to start a new business, while Colombia, Egypt, Turkey, Italy and Russia are the least friendly to innovation and entrepreneurship, according to the results of a global 24-country BBC World Service poll released today.

The poll also finds that Americans and Chinese are equally likely to say that their country values creativity and innovation, just behind Indonesians. The GlobeScan poll is featured in a series of special reports on the BBC's international news services, called Extreme World. The series, on TV, radio and online, will study some of the world's most dramatic divides, highlighting the extraordinary disparities in people's lives and lifestyles and this month focuses on the topic of business.

The GlobeScan/PIPA survey of more than 24,000 people asked people to say how hard they felt it was for people like them to start a business in their country, whether their country values creativity and innovation, whether it values entrepreneurs and whether people with good ideas can usually put them into practice. Taking all four questions into account, Indonesia ranked highest as the most entrepreneur-friendly of the countries surveyed, followed closely by the USA.

The poll found that majorities in 23 out of 24 countries polled thought it was hard for people like them to start a business in their country. Brazilians emerge as the most downbeat, with 84 per cent agreeing that this is the case. Germans are the most upbeat, with less than half feeling it is hard to start a business in Germany (48%), and Australians (51%) and Canadians (55%) are also relatively positive compared to other nations.

The world’s two major economies—USA and China—are also among the most favourable countries for innovation and creativity, the results suggest. In both countries, 75 per cent say that their country values innovation and creativity—second only to Indonesia (85%), and well ahead of other emerging economies such as Brazil (54%) and India (67%). At the other end of the scale, only 24 per cent of Turks and 26 per cent of Russians and Egyptians say they feel that innovation and creativity is valued in their country.

The results are drawn from a survey of 24,537 adult citizens across 24 countries. It was conducted for BBC World Service by the international polling firm GlobeScan together with the Program on International Policy Attitudes (PIPA) at the University of Maryland. GlobeScan coordinated fieldwork between June and September 2010. Within-country results are considered accurate within +/- 2.1 to 3.5 per cent 19 times out of 20.

GlobeScan Chairman Doug Miller commented: “The large differences in entrepreneurial culture among emerging economies will likely impact their relative economic performance over time. For example, it will be interesting to see if Indonesia’s positive mind-set leads to it outperforming relatively downbeat Brazil.”

Other Findings

The poll results show that despite the widely held view that starting a business is difficult, on average across all countries polled a slight majority (53%) felt that people with good ideas in their country could usually put them into practice. Indonesians were again among the most positive, with nearly four in five (79%) feeling this way. Once again, least positive were Turks (19%) and Russians (23%).

The survey also asked whether people had had ideas for starting their own business. The results reveal that people in developing countries are much more likely than those in industrialised countries to have had ideas for starting their own business. Nigerians, Kenyans (both 79%), Peruvians (76%), Ecuadorians (73%), and Ghanaians (70%) were most likely to have had an idea for doing so, while Europeans with an idea for starting their own business were in the minority (29% in Germany, 37% in the UK, 38% in Italy, and 42% in France). Russians (27%) were the least likely to have had an idea.

Slightly fewer (49%) across the countries polled said they had had an idea for improving the lives of people in their community. Kenyans (75%), Nigerians (70%), Mexicans (67%) and Peruvians (62%) were the most likely to have had such an idea.

The UK in detail

Britons are more likely than other leading countries to perceive that it is difficult to start a business in their country. Nearly two-thirds (65%) think that it would be hard for them to start their own business, compared to 48 per cent of Germans and 51 per cent of Australians. People in France (64%) and Germany (60%) are more likely than the UK (57%) to believe that innovation and creativity are valued in their country.

However, Britons are more likely than Germans to feel that entrepreneurs are valued in their country—55 per cent of Britons feel this way, compared to 51 per cent of Germans. Both are some way behind the three-quarters of Indonesians and Canadians who think that entrepreneurs are valued in their country. Along with Germans (UK 55%, Germany 56%), Britons are the most likely of the European nations to consider that people with good ideas can put them into practice in their country—although some way behind countries such as Indonesia (79%) and the USA (68%).

In total 24,537 citizens in 24 countries, were interviewed face-to-face or by telephone between June 24 and September 11, 2010. Polling was conducted for BBC World Service by the international polling firm GlobeScan and its research partners in each country. In nine of the 24 countries, the sample was limited to major urban areas. The margin of error per country ranges from +/-2.1 to 3.5 per cent, 19 times out of 20.

For more details, please visit www.GlobeScan.com


Participating Countries

In Brazil, China, Colombia, Ecuador, Egypt, Indonesia, Mexico, the Philippines, and Turkey urban samples were used.

bbc2412 country map

For detailed results, including country-by-country data for all key questions, please see the Key Findings page below.


Media Contacts

For media interviews with the participating pollsters, please contact:

Sam Mountford, Research Director
GlobeScan Incorporated, London
+44 20 7928 5368
(Mobile: +44 7854 132625)
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Oliver Martin, Director, Global Development
GlobeScan Incorporated, Toronto
+1 416 969 3073
(Mobile: +1 416 721 3544)
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About GlobeScan

GlobeScan Incorporated is an international opinion research consultancy. We provide global organisations with evidence-based insight to help them set strategy and shape their communications. Companies, multilateral institutions, governments, and NGOs trust GlobeScan for our unique expertise across reputation management, sustainability, and stakeholder relations. GlobeScan conducts research in over 90 countries, is ISO 9001-2008 quality certified and a signatory to the UN Global Compact.

Established in 1987, GlobeScan is an independent, management-owned company with offices in Toronto, London, and San Francisco. For more information, visit: www.globescan.com

About BBC World Service

The BBC World Service is an international multimedia broadcaster, delivering a wide range of language and regional services on radio, TV, online and via wireless handheld devices. It uses multiple platforms to reach its weekly audience of 180 million globally (2010), including shortwave, AM, FM, digital satellite and cable channels. Its news sites include audio and video content and offer opportunities to join the global debate. BBC World Service offers its multilingual radio content to partner FM stations around the world and has numerous partnerships supplying content to news websites, mobile phones and other wireless handheld devices as well as TV channels. For more information, visit: www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice

Backgrounder: Region-by-Region Results

North America

North America has among the most entrepreneur-friendly culture of any region. American and Canadian mind-sets are very similar in this regard, rating 2.80 and 2.78 respectively on the entrepreneur-friendly index (on a scale of 1 to 4), and well above the 24-country global index average of 2.49. The USA and Canada rank second and third after Indonesia.

Although a majority of Americans (59%) and Canadians (55%) agree it is hard to start a new business in their country, 36 and 41 per cent respectively disagree with this statement, which makes them among the most upbeat countries about the possibility of becoming entrepreneurs, and well above the global average (29%).

This relatively high degree of enthusiasm for entrepreneurship opportunities compared to other countries can also be seen in the strong tendency of North Americans to believe that innovation and creativity are highly valued in their country. Three-quarters of Americans and over seven in ten Canadians (72%) feel this way. These figures are well above the global average (55%) and represent the second and third highest score among all surveyed countries.

Canadians and Americans also have similar views on two other measures of entrepreneurship culture: almost three in four Canadians think people who start their own business are highly valued (74%, the second highest percentage) and 66 per cent of Americans think the same way. Finally, two-thirds of Americans (68%) and Canadians (66%) agree that people with good ideas can put them into practice. This places them among the most optimistic respondents globally. 

However, only a slight majority of Canadians (53%) and Americans (51%) say they have had an idea for starting their own business, in line with the global average of 53 per cent. They are a bit more creative when it comes to community solidarity as 58 and 54 per cent respectively say they have had ideas to help improve people’s lives in their community, above the global average of the survey (49%). 

Latin America

The entrepreneurship culture in Latin America is diverse and varies from country to country. While Mexican attitudes are closer to those of North America with a 2.62 rating on the entrepreneur-friendly index (highest in the region), Brazilians are surprisingly much less upbeat. Brazil scores only 2.33 despite its status as a fast-growing emerging economy and this puts the country below the global average score (2.49). Brazilians are also notably the most likely to say they think it would be difficult for them to start a new business (84%, highest percentage in the survey). However, a majority think innovation and creativity are highly valued (54%, similar to the global average). 

Colombia has the least well-developed culture of innovation and entrepreneurship of all countries surveyed with an index of 2.04. Unlike Brazil, this is combined with a perception that it is both difficult to start one’s own business (67%) and pessimism regarding how innovation and creativity are valued in their country—only 30 per cent of Colombians think it is, the fourth lowest percentage among all countries surveyed and well below the global average of 55 per cent. Reflecting the strong economic disparities among Latin American countries, Peruvian and Ecuadorian attitudes on entrepreneurship and innovation are in between: less downbeat than in Brazil and Colombia, but not as positive as in Mexico.

Other measures of the entrepreneurship culture index show a similarly diverse pattern across the region. While majorities of Peruvians and Mexicans think entrepreneurs are highly valued in their own country (58% and 54%, in line with the global average of 55%), Colombians and Brazilians are more downbeat. Fifty-one per cent of Brazilians think people who start their own business are not valued, and the picture is even gloomier in Colombia where almost seven in ten (69%) think new entrepreneurs are not valued in their country (highest percentage in the survey).

Colombians are also the most pessimistic in the region about how easy it is to put good ideas into practice, with almost six in ten (59%) of them disagreeing with this statement. Echoing their enthusiasm regarding how innovation is valued in their country, Brazilians are the most likely in Latin America to agree that people with good ideas can put them into practice (64%, above the 53% global average). On this last measure, Mexican, Peruvian and Ecuadorian attitudes are all positive and above the global average.

Regarding inspiration for community initiatives, Chinese are also the most likely to say they have had ideas to help improve people’s lives in their community (56%, above the 49% global average). They are followed by Indians (51%). Filipinos, Australians, and Indonesians are in line with the global average, but Pakistanis are once again trailing with four in ten saying they have had ideas against 48 per cent who say they have not.

Latin American publics appear to be creative as strong majorities in each country say they have had ideas to start their own business, but Peruvians and Ecuadorians stand out more than their regional neighbours on this question (76% and 73% respectively, second and third highest percentages in the survey). Inspiration and creativity related to people’s community life also appear well developed—particularly in Mexico and Peru—with majorities saying they have had ideas to help improve people’s lives in their community.

Europe

A divide in entrepreneurship culture is apparent within Europe. Respondents from the leading economies of the EU are clearly the most entrepreneur-friendly. Germany has the highest European score on the entrepreneurship index, rating 2.60. France and the UK follow with ratings also above the global average (2.56 and 2.50 respectively). In Germany, only a slight plurality of respondents agree that it is hard to start a new business (48%, well below the global average of 67%), but 44 per cent disagree (highest percentage in the survey alongside Australia). Although a majority of French (60%) and Britons (65%) agree it is hard to start a new business in their country, they are more likely than the rest of Europeans to disagree with this statement.

The differences in entrepreneurial attitudes between these three leading countries and the rest of European countries are sharp. Spain and Italy score low on the entrepreneurship index (2.20 and 2.15) and peripheral European countries as well (2.17 in Russia; 2.14 in Turkey). Italians (78%), Russians (74%), and Spaniards (73%) are all very likely to feel that becoming an entrepreneur in their country is difficult (all above the global average). Along with Turks, they also all have very downbeat views on how innovation and creativity are valued in their country. Only around a quarter of Turkish and Russian respondents agree they are highly valued (24% and 26%, respectively lowest and second lowest percentages among countries surveyed). Italian and Spanish perceptions in this regard are also well below the global average (55%) as only minorities think innovation and creativity are valued (41% and 38% respectively). Conversely, comfortable majorities in each of the three EU leading economies agree that innovation and creativity are highly valued, with the French being the most upbeat about it (64%). 

The other measures of entrepreneurship culture index show a pretty similar split within European countries. France, the UK, and Germany all have majorities agreeing that people who start their own business are highly valued. The French in particular strongly agree with this statement (73%, third highest percentage in the survey). On this same measure, Italians are among the most enthusiastic and indeed agree that entrepreneurs are highly valued in Italy, although to a lesser extent (50% agree, below the global average of 55%). Views of Spanish, Russian, and Turkish people are contrasting, with majorities or pluralities saying people who start their own business are not highly valued.

Germans and Britons are the most optimistic among Europeans as regards the ease of putting new ideas into practice in their country. On this particular measure, they have a different perspective to the French, a majority of whom have pessimistic views—55 per cent think that there are barriers to prevent them to put new ideas into practice. Spanish opinion is divided (47% agree vs 50% disagree), while Italian, Russian, and Turkish respondents are among those with a gloomy outlook. Turks and Italians are by some distance the most pessimistic with two-thirds feeling that there are barriers that prevent them from putting good ideas into practice in their country (68% and 67% respectively, highest percentages in the survey after Egypt).

The entrepreneur-friendly attitudes of Germans, French and Britons surprisingly do not translate into a strong sense of creativity as only minorities say they have had new ideas to start their own business, below the global average of 53 per cent. Only 29 per cent of Germans say they have had an idea, the third lowest percentage in the survey. Turkey is the only European country with a majority (51%) saying they have had idea to start their own business.

The same lack of inspiration regarding community solidarity initiatives is apparent in the proportions of Europeans who say they have had new ideas to help improve people’s lives in their community. None of the countries stands out with a majority saying they have had ideas, and proportions in France (30%), Germany (33%), and the UK (35%) are the lowest and well below the global average of 49 per cent.

 

Africa

The entrepreneurship culture in Africa appears quite well developed. Nigeria rates the highest on the entrepreneur-friendly index (2.70), while Kenya (2.63) and Ghana (2.56) also rate above the global average of the index (2.49). Egypt is the exception to these relatively positive attitudes as its score is only 2.06, which is the second lowest rating among all participating countries in the survey (2.04 for Colombia).

However, respondents from the four African countries all feel it would be difficult for them to start a new business in their own country. Ghanaians are the most downbeat in this regard with 76 per cent saying it is difficult, while Nigerians, Kenyans and Egyptians (64%, 68%, and 68% respectively) are in line with the global average (67%).

The main difference between Egypt and the three Sub-Saharan countries is about perceptions of how entrepreneurship is valued in their country. Views in Kenya, Ghana, and Nigeria are very similar with comfortable majorities among publics agreeing innovation and creativity are highly valued. Kenyans are the most upbeat with 67 per cent of them feeling this way, 12 points above the global average. Strong majorities in these three countries also agree that entrepreneurs are highly valued with Ghanaians the most likely to say people who start their own business are highly valued (73%, third highest percentage in the survey). The proportion of people thinking this way in Nigeria (67%) and Kenya (60%) is also well above the global average (55%).

The picture is totally different in Egypt where public perceptions of how the culture of innovation and entrepreneurship is valued are very negative. Twenty-six per cent of Egyptians agree that innovation and creativity are highly valued in their country—the second lowest percentage in the survey after Turkey—and the same very low proportion (27%) think that entrepreneurs who started a new business are highly valued as well—lowest percentage of all participating countries, equally with Colombia. Egypt is also trailing Sub-Saharan countries in the proportions of people who believe good ideas can be put into practice (27%). Nigerians are the most optimistic in this regard (71%, second highest percentage in the survey after Indonesia), ahead of Kenya (58%), while only a slight plurality of Ghanaians also lean this way (49% vs 45%).  

Overwhelming majorities of Nigerians and Kenyans say they have had new ideas to start their own business. With 79 per cent in both countries, they are those with the strongest sense of creativity among all participating countries. Ghanaians follow with seven in ten saying they have had entrepreneurial ideas. Egyptian attitudes are consistent with their generally weak entrepreneurship mind-set as 72 per cent say they have not had new ideas to start a business—the highest percentage in the survey.

 

The picture is very similar when it comes to inspiration to improve people’s communities. Kenyans and Nigerians are the most likely to say they have had ideas to help improve people’s lives in their community, with 75 and 70 per cent respectively. These are the highest scores in the survey, very significantly above the global average of 49 per cent. Egyptians are again trailing: with 73 per cent, they are the most apathetic and most likely to say they have not had ideas to help people’s lives in the community.

 

Asia

Most countries surveyed in Asia have a well-developed entrepreneurship culture. Except Pakistan, all have good ratings on the entrepreneur-friendly index. Indonesia scores the highest rating of all participating countries in the survey (2.81), just ahead of the USA. India and Australia rank fourth (2.73) and fifth (2.72), while China and the Philippines also rate relatively high (2.66 and 2.62 respectively). Only Pakistan is trailing, rating only 2.35 on the index and below the global average (2.49).

However, almost all countries in the region have solid majorities saying that there are some barriers to starting a new business in their country. Chinese and Filipinos are the most likely to think this way (76%), followed by Indians (72%) and Indonesians (69%), all above the global average of 67 per cent. Australians are less pessimistic with just a slight majority saying it is hard to start a new business (51%), while 44 per cent of them disagree with the statement—which makes them the most upbeat country about the possibility of becoming entrepreneurs, on a par with Germany). 

There is more optimism around the perception of how innovation and creativity are valued in Asian countries. Except in Pakistan, publics’ mind-sets are very positive, with majorities above the global average (55%) saying that initiatives in these areas are highly valued. Indonesians are by far the most likely to feel this way (85%, highest percentage among the 24 countries surveyed), followed by Chinese (75%, second highest percentage equally with the USA), and Filipinos (72%). Indians and Australians (67% and 68%) also lean positively and are above the global average (55%). Perceptions in Pakistan are also positive but to a lesser degree: a plurality of 44 per cent agrees innovation and creativity are highly valued.

Countries with majorities agreeing innovation is valued in their country also have majorities saying that those who start a new business are highly valued. Indonesians are again at the top of this list with three quarters feeling this way, followed by Filipinos (70%). Proportions in other Asian countries are also well above the global average of 55 per cent, except in Pakistan where a plurality of 42 per cent think that people who start a new business are not highly valued, with only 38 per cent believing that they are. The same proportion of Pakistanis (42%) also thinks it is hard for people with good ideas to put them into practice. Thirty-seven per cent feel the opposite, under half the proportion in Indonesia (79%). Indonesians are the most optimistic of all countries surveyed about the ease of putting new ideas into practice in their country. They are followed by Indians (70%, third highest overall). Respondents in the Philippines, Australia, and China are also confident in this regard with percentages well above the global average (53%). 

However, the picture is more diverse when people are asked whether they have had an idea for starting their own business. Only three Asian countries have majorities who say this is the case. Chinese are the most likely to feel this way (67%), followed by Indonesians (62%), and Filipinos (57%). Australians and Indians seem to have a lesser sense of creativity as a slight majority of Australians say they have not had ideas to start a business and a plurality of 44 per cent feel the same in India. Pakistanis are consistent with their weak entrepreneurship culture as less than three in ten (29%) say they have had ideas to start a business.

Methodology

In total 24,537 citizens in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Ecuador, Egypt, France, Germany, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Italy, Kenya, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, the Philippines, Russia, Spain, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States were interviewed face-to-face or by telephone between June 24 and September 11, 2010. Polling was conducted for BBC World Service by GlobeScan and its research partners in each country.

In Brazil, China, Colombia, Ecuador, Egypt, Indonesia, Mexico, the Philippines, and Turkey urban samples were used. The margin of error per country ranges from +/- 2.1 to 3.5 per cent, 19 times out of 20.

CountrySample Size (unweighted)Field datesSample frameSurvey methodologyType of sample
Australia 800 December 4, 2010 – January 14, 2011 18+ Telephone National
Brazil 802 December 2, 2010 – January 5, 2011 18–69 Face-to-face Urban1
Canada 902 December 20, 2010 – January 18, 2011 18+ Telephone National
China 1000 December 18–31, 2010 18+ Telephone Urban2
Colombia 800 July 22-30, 2010 18+ Face-to-face Urban3
Ecuador 793 August 4-21, 2010 18+ Face-to-face Urban4
Egypt 1011 December 5–12, 2010 18+ Face-to-face Urban5
France 807 December 13–17, 2010 15+ Telephone National
Germany 1017 December 12, 2010 – January 3, 2011 16–70 Telephone National
Ghana 1000 December 14–29, 2010 18+ Face-to-face National
India 1168 December 22, 2010 – January 8, 2011 18+ Face-to-face National
Indonesia 1000 December 6, 2010 – January 11, 2011 18+ Face-to-face Urban6
Italy 1004 January 17–28, 2011 18+ Telephone National
Kenya 1000 January 3 – February 4, 2011 18+ Face-to-face National
Mexico 1000 December 15, 2010 – January 14, 2011 18+ Telephone Urban7
Nigeria 1000 December 16–24, 2010 18+ Face-to-face National
Pakistan 2452 December 12–26, 2010 18+ Face-to-face National
Peru 1107 January 4–11, 2011 18–69 Face-to-face National
Philippines 800 December 14, 2010 – January 9, 2011 18+ Face-to-face Urban8
Russia 1010 December 23, 2010 – January 18, 2011 18+ Face-to-face National
Spain 802 December 20, 2010 – January 3, 2011 18+ Telephone National
Turkey 1000 December 8–20, 2011 15+ Face-to-face Urban9
United Kingdom 1001 December 3–16, 2010 18+ Telephone National
USA 1000 December 4, 2010 – January 13, 2011 18+ Telephone National

    1 In Brazil the survey was conducted in Belo Horizonte, Brasilia, Curitiba, Goiânia, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, and São Paulo, representing 18% of the total national adult population.

    2 In China the survey was conducted in Beijing, Beiliu, Chengdu, Fenyang, Fuyang, Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Manzhouli, Quanzhou, Qujing, Shanghai, Shenyang, Shuangcheng, Wuhan, Xi'an, Xining, and Zhengzhou, representing 45% of the total national adult population.

    3 In Colombia the survey was conducted in Barranquilla, Bogota D.C., Cali, and Medellin, representing 33% of the total national adult population.

    4 In Ecuador, the survey was conducted in Ambato, Cuenca, Duràn, Guayaquil, Loja, Machala, Manta, Portoviejo, Quito, Riobamba, and Santo Domingo, representing 64% of the total urban adult population.

    5 In Egypt the survey was conducted in Shubra El-Kheima, Alexandria, Cairo, and Giza, representing 24% of the total national adult population.

    6 In Indonesia the survey was conducted in Bandung, Jakarta, Makassar, Medan, and Surabaya, representing 27% of the total national adult population.

    7 In Mexico the survey was conducted in the 16 largest cities and media market regions, constituting 40% of the national adult population and 80% of the residential telephone landlines.

    8 In the Philippines the survey was conducted in the National Capital Region, representing 27% of the total urban adult population.

    9 In Turkey the survey was conducted in Adana, Ankara, Antalya, Bursa, Diyarbakir, Erzurum, Istanbul, Izmir, Konya, Samsun, and Zonguldak, representing 56% of the total national adult population.

Research Partners

CountryResearch InstituteLocationContact
Australia Populus Data Solutions London Patrick Diamond
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+44 207 553 4148
Brazil Market Analysis Florianópolis Fabián Echegaray
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+55 48 3364 0000
Canada GlobeScan Toronto Oliver Martin
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+1 416 969 3073
China GlobeScan Toronto Oliver Martin
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+1 416 969 3073
Columbia G.G. SIGMA DOS Colombia Bogota Gloria Gallego
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+571 236 59 33
Ecuador Propraxis-Sigma Dos Ecuador Quito Carlos Moreno
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+593 7288 8519
Egypt Attitude Market Research Cairo Mohamed Al Gendy
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+202 22711262
France Efficience 3 Paris and Rheims Christian de Thieulloy
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+33 1 4316 5442
Germany Ri*QUESTA GmbH Teningen Bernhard Rieder
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+49 7641 93 43 36
Ghana Business Interactive Consulting Limited Accra Razaaque Animashaun
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+233 302 783140 / +233 302 782892
India Team C Voter Noida Yashwant Deshmukh
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+91 120 4175200 (extn. 223)
Indonesia DEKA Marketing Research Jakarta Irma Malibariirma
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+62 21 723 6901
Italy GfK Eurisko s.r.l. Milan Paolo Anselmi
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+39 02 438091
Kenya Research Path Associates Ltd. Nairobi Jeremy Mwololo
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+254 20 2734770
Mexico The Mund Group Mexico City Cristina Montaño
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+52 55 5584 3020 / 2470
Nigeria Real Edge Research Options Lagos Michael Umogun
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+234 802 311 7969
Pakistan Gallup Pakistan Islamabad Ijaz Shafi Gilani
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+92 51 2655630
Peru Datum Lima Urpi Torrado
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+511 215 0600
Philippines M&S-Sigma Dos Philippines, Inc. Makati City Teodora Marasigan
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+63 2 8172780
Russia CESSI Institute for Comparative Social Research Moscow Vladimir Andreenkov
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+7 495 650 55 18
Spain Sigma Dos Int. Madrid Gines Garrido
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+34 91 360 0474
Turkey Yöntem Research Consultancy Ltd. Istanbul Bülent Gündoğmuş
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+90 212 278 1219
United Kingdom Populus Data Solutions London Patrick Diamond
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+44 207 553 4148
USA Populus Data Solutions Toronto Patrick Diamond
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+44 207 553 4148

Question Wording

M5

To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statements?

  • a. Innovation and creativity is highly valued in this country.
    • 01 Strongly agree
    • 02 Somewhat agree
    • 03 Somewhat disagree
    • 04 Strongly disagree
    • VOLUNTEERED (DO NOT READ)
    • 99 Don’t know / not applicable
  • b. In this country, it is hard for people like me to start their own business
  • c. People who start their own business are highly valued in this country
  • d. In this country, people with good ideas can usually put them into practice
M6

Have you ever had a new idea for starting your own business?

  • 01 Strongly agree
  • 02 Somewhat agree
  • 03 Somewhat disagree
  • 04 Strongly disagree
  • VOLUNTEERED (DO NOT READ)
  • 99 Don’t know / not applicable
M7

And have you ever had a new idea for improving the lives of people in your community?

  • 01 Yes, I have
  • 02 No, I have not
  • VOLUNTEERED (DO NOT READ)
  • 99 Don’t know / not applicable

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